1. Rzeźba terenu, flisz, tworzenie się gleby
1. Rzeźba terenu, flisz, tworzenie się gleby

The hill on which we are now is located on the northern slopes of the Łososińskie Range, also known as the Jaworz Range, where the highest peak is Mt Jaworz (921 m above sea level). The Łososińskie Range is part of the Beskid Wyspowy, which is part of a larger geological and geographical structure, i.e. the Carpathians. The Carpathians are the second largest mountain range in Europe.
The Beskid Wyspowy (Insular Beskid) stands out in the flysch Carpathians with a separate surface relief. It includes isolated mountains with a height of 900-1200 m above sea level, such as Mt Mogielica (1171 m), Mt Ćwilin (1071 m), Mt Lubogoszcz (988 m), Sałasz-Jaworz Range (921 m) and others.
The area discussed is made of Carpathian flysch. Flysch consists of a series of rocks, mainly sandstones and shales, and to a lesser extent mudstones, conglomerates, claystones, marls and limestones. It is worth paying attention to the exposed fragment of these rocks right next to the car park, where alternating layers of rocks are clearly visible. This structure favors the formation of landslides: water-soaked shale rocks slide on hard sandstone layers. This property is contained in the etymology of the word flysch, derived from the word fliessen (German), meaning - to flow. Geologically, landslides are part of huge denudation processes, the aim of which is to flatten the topography of a given region. The reason is gravity, leading to various types of soil and rock slides. The flysch Carpathians are one of the most geologically dynamic regions in Poland.
Older settlements in the Beskid Wyspowy were concentrated in the bottoms of valleys and basins, on high terraces - beyond the reach of catastrophic floods (Limanowa, Tymbark, Laskowa, Dobra, Mszana Dolna, Kamienica, Łącko and others). After the riverbeds were regulated, modern settlements entered the flood plains and the gentle slopes previously occupied by agriculture.

Weathering is the slow mechanical or chemical decomposition of rocks. This process takes place under the influence of water, temperature changes, and biological factors. It runs in the near-surface layer of the earth's crust (weathering zone) with a thickness of several to several dozen meters. The waste is formed. Living organisms cause both mechanical and chemical weathering. As a result of their activity, soil is formed. The formation of the soil depends on many factors. The parent rock is the basic material. Climatic conditions, vegetation cover, surface relief and human activity, as well as the age of the soil, significantly affect its condition. Looking at the exposed soil profile at the stop, we can see its diversity. The soil consists of several levels, differing in structure, color, and content of rock crumbs. This outcrop represents well the characteristics of the mountain soil. It is a very shallow brown soil.
The forest litter level consists of several layers of leaves, which are decomposed by bacteria, fungi, and other soil organisms. The leaves from previous years are darker and partially decomposed. Here the seeds of trees and undergrowth plants germinate.
The level of soil humus is dark grey. It consists of mineral grains and amorphous organic particles originating mainly from the decomposition of plant matter. The humus stores moisture and nutrients. It is a habitat for many soil organisms and underground plant organs.
The cambic level has a brown color, resulting from physical and chemical transformations taking place in the soil. Iron and aluminum compounds form brown shells around mineral grains.
The cambic and bedrock level is the transition to the sandstone bedrock. Sharp-edged, large rock fragments are visible.
Note the very thin humus layer. We also see how the roots of the trees go deep into the clay and stony ground. Poor soil conditions and a significant slope mean that the area is currently not used for agriculture and has remained afforested.

The Carpathians against the background of state borders

Soil profile at the stop and its scheme
strona główna dodaj do ulubionych mapa strony do góry
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