5. Mszaki i paprocie leśne (rośliny zarodnikowe)
Liverworts are small spore plants. In the development cycle of spore plants there is an alternation of generations, from the sexually reproducing phase - gametophyte to the asexual phase - sporophyte. The gametophyte of liverworts forms a thallus or, more often, a stem and leaves. The gametophyte is attached to the substrate by single-celled rhizoids. A short-lived and delicate sporophyte is formed after fertilization, and it forms a sporangia containing spores and elaters. Elaters under the influence of light make rapid movements, which causes the ejection of mature spores. The sporangia of liverworts do not form a moss-like cap. In forests, liverworts are found in moist places, develop on bare soil, decaying wood, and on the bark of tree trunks. They often grow between the stems of mosses. On the ground, in the damp places of our path, we can see such species of liverworts as Snakeskin Liverwort (Conocephalum conicum), Common Pellia (Pellia epiphylla), Creeping Fingerwort (Lepidozia reptans), Bifid Crestwort (Lophocolea bidentata), and on rotting wood, Variable-leaved Crestwort (Lophocolea heterophylla).

Spore plants. The gametophyte always has the form of a stalk, sometimes of considerable size, covered with leaves arranged in a twisted manner in many ranks (this feature distinguishes them from liverworts). The leaf blade is unicellular, quite often with a multicellular rib. The sporophyte is quite persistent and differentiates into foot, seta, and sporangia. It produces a sporangium covered with a cap. We encounter mosses on our path in three habitats. On poor, quite acidic soil, grow: Large White-moss (Leucobryum glaucum), Nodding Thread-moss (Pohlia nutans), Bright Silkmoss (Plagiothecium laetum), Bank Haircap Moss (Polytrichastrum formosum), Red-stemmed Feather-moss (Pleurozium schreberi), Silky Forklet-moss (Dicranella heteromalla), Redshank (Ceratodon purpureus). In the soil in moist and shady places, the following grows: Spare Rug Moss (Eurynchium hians), Rough-stalked Feather-moss (Brachythecium rutabulum), Dentated Silk-moss (Plagiothecium denticulatum), Long-beaked Thyme-moss (Plagiomnium rostratum), Hart’s-tongue Thyme-moss (Plagiomnium undulatum), Catherine’s Moss (Atrichum undulatum). On the decaying wood and on the bark at the base of the tree trunks grow: Velvet Feather-moss (Brachytheciastrum velutinum), Creeping Feather-moss (Amblystegium serpens), Montane Dicranum Moss (Orthodicranum montanum), Cypress-leaved Plait-moss (Hypnum cupressiforme).

Spore plants. The fern's sporophyte forms large leaves that are characteristically curled when young; the stems often appear in the form of an underground rhizome. There are vascular bundles in the stems and veins of the leaves. The fern gametophyte is short-lived and inconspicuous. On the trail, the ferns grow in shady places. There are species such as: Male Fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), Lady Fern (Athyrium filix- femina), Narrow Buckler Fern (Dryopteris carthusiana). On the edge of the forest we can see the Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum).

Common Pellia

1. Catherine’s Moss, 2. Rough-stalked Feather-moss, 3. Large White-moss, 4. Bank Haircap Moss, 5. Lady Fern, 6. Narrow Buckler-fern, 7. Bracken.
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