10. Drzewa iglaste
Coniferous species are mainly trees (only juniper is a shrub), producing small leaf blades in the shape of needles (pins). The needles, depending on the species, can be short or long, stiff and prickly, or short and soft. The coniferous species are gymnosperms in which the uncovered ovule is located on the carpel. When ripe, small seeds are hidden in the cones, among their woody scales. Most often, conifers are evergreen; their needles remain on the tree through the winter. The only exception in the flora of Poland is the larch. Conifers dominate almost 76% of Poland's forest area. Their large share in our forests was also due to their preference, starting from the nineteenth century, by the wood processing industry.
Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
In the stand: coniferous tree in the main stand with thick furrowed bark in the lower part of the trunk, slightly twisted sharp needles clustered in 2 on a short stem, and hard cones set on short stalks.
European Silver Fir (Abies alba)
In the tree stand: solitary in the lower part of the slope, medium-sized coniferous trees with smooth light gray bark, with short blunt needles arranged in a comb-like manner. You will not find cones under the tree.
Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
In the surrounding stand: solitary medium-sized coniferous trees with brown-red scaly bark, with short, comb-like, or brush-like prickly needles and soft cones hanging from the branches.
European Larch (Larix decidua)
In the stand: a single coniferous tree that reached the upper floor of the forest. The needles are soft, short, collected in bunches, and shed for winter. Cones small, oval.
Common Juniper (Juniperus communis)
The coniferous green shrub strongly branched from the base of the trunk, with a columnar habit. It grows slowly. The bark is thin, initially smooth, and reddish brown. With time, the bark becomes gray-brown, cracked lengthwise, and flaking in the form of long strips. Leaves in the form of needles, grow three in a whorl. They are narrow-lanceolate, trough-shaped, stiff, and prickly, 5 to 12 mm long, gray-green in color, with a wide white stripe at the top. Once a very common species on the surrounding pastures and forest edges. Currently rarer, but very important as a biocenotic species in every plant community.
1.Scots Pine. 2. European Silver Fir. 3. Norway Spruce. 4. Eurepean Larch. 5. Common Juniper.