12. Miejsce widokowe
VIEW OF ŁOSOSINA VALLEY
Stops 9 and 12 are scenic spots, but nearby trees make it difficult to observe the panorama. Aerial photographs of the Łososina valley will allow us to get to know its character. To the north-east, a view of a fragment of the Łososina valley opens. At stop 9, you can see another part of the valley towards the north-west. Therefore, everything related to the landscape of this part of the Beskid Wyspowy will be described jointly at both stops (9 and 12).
Here we can see further fragments of the divided Kamionna and Kobyła ridges, which border the Łososina valley from the north. At this stop, you can see the Kamionna peak (802 m above sea level) on the western horizon. On its southern slope, there is a ski resort with a ski lift and downhill runs. On the other hand, the culmination of the peak of Kobyła (605 m above sea level) towers more or less over Krosna (looking towards the north-east) and is invisible from this place. It can only be seen in the photograph as the highest point on the horizon in this area. From the stop you can see the lower ridges from a closer perspective, which effectively cover Kobyła. East of the Jabłoniec ridge (510 m above sea level) visible from this place (and from stop 9), you can see the Jastrząbka ridge (566.7 m above sea level), where there is a historic cemetery from World War I.
Between the ridges of Jabłoniec and Jastrząbka, there is a clear lowering of the terrain along which the Jabłoniecki Potok flows and the road from Kamionka Mała (Lipniczka) to Rozdziele runs. It is an excellent shortcut for those going from Ujanowice, e.g. to Krakow. The lowering of the land in this place is of historical importance. In ancient times, a branch of an ancient trade route from south to north passed through this area. The main route ran through the Dunajec valley, but, often using natural depressions as a shortcut, it branched into smaller side routes. And it was from the Dunajec valley, first along the Łososina valley, and then down the Jabłoniec Potok and further north, that one of the branches of the Roman (and perhaps earlier Greek) route ran. Roman coins from the imperial period (1st century BC - 5th century AD) discovered in the Łososina valley confirm the presence of the Romans in this area.
In those days, the entire area was covered by the Carpathian forest. The first wave of settlements probably came here in the 10th century and lasted until the 13th century. After the expulsion of Czechs from Kraków by Bolesław Chrobry in 999, this area was incorporated into the Sądecczyzna region, which was part of Lesser Poland (Małopolska). This allowed for the construction of a road from Kraków through Nowy Sącz to Hungary along the aforementioned depression and further along the Łososina and Dunajec valleys. From a topographical point of view, it should be added that the Kamionna and Kobyła ranges are the last mountain range Outer Flysch Carpathians (Beskids), farther north are the much lower Foothills and the Vistula valley. That is why the Widoma and Rozdziele passes were of such great communication importance in overcoming this mountain barrier, especially in ancient times.
It is worth paying some attention to the economic activity of man, who, together with the forces of nature, created the landscape of the Łososina valley. The first settlers cared very much about the location of their houses in places that did not collide with the areas that often provided them with the only source of livelihood, i.e. agricultural land. The first settlements and later villages, located in the Łososina somehow hugged one of its banks (Laskowa, Strzeszyce, Ujanowice). Later, they were set in side valleys (Kamionka Mała, Jaworzna, Krosna, Żmiąca). The flat bottom of Łososina valley remained free of development. Here, in the alluvial sediments, relatively fertile mountain alluvial soils have formed. These soils are quite shallow, characterized by a fine mechanical composition with a high content of sand and gravel, moderately rich in nutrients. However, in this area, these are the best soils, belonging to the III and IV degree of soil quality class. The slopes of the valley are dominated by structural,skeleton soils, on average of V and VI degree of quality class. We have seen this difference at stop 1. Agricultural crops on the valley floor are also favored by the microclimate, because always in lower-lying areas the temperatures are on average higher and the winds are weaker due to the hills protecting the valley. There is also no surface runoff on flat terrain, which causes soil erosion.
This state of the landscape lasted until about the middle of the 20th century. At first slowly, then with increasing intensity, the building invasion began on the valley floor. This was facilitated by the growing decline in the economic situation of small-scale farming and also, since the beginning of this century, by the increasing administrative possibilities of transforming agricultural land into building grounds. And so, before our eyes, the landscape, especially the bottom of the valley, changed dramatically. First, individual buildings and, later, even entire estates, were built on the Łososina plain.
This is perfectly visible in the contemporary photo of Laskowa from a bird's-eye view.
The same applies to other villages located at the bottom of the entire Łososina valley. Fragmentation in the ownership of the arable fields in our area resulted in the creation of the network of access roads to the plots. Once dirt roads, now they are often asphalted, which also affects the landscape. Natural wetlands have been drained and some of the riverside plant communities have been cut down (e.g., Carpathian alder wood). Many more features of a sustainable landscape can be observed on both sides of the valley. Due to the less favorable surface relief, as well as the weaker soils, the economic intervention of man proceeded much slower there. Additionally, to obtain land for agriculture or development, it was often necessary to clear the forest first. Despite this, we also observe changes in the landscape. Asphalt roads and other infrastructure lead to higher and higher situated settlements. The small tracts of oak-hornbeam forest visible today are the only remnants of what once covered almost the entire slopes. In fact, only the top parts of the ridges of the Łososińskie Range as well as Kamionna and Kobyła retain the features of the original landscape.
It is worth devoting a few sentences to the breakthrough section of the Łososina valley, mentioned in the description of the ninth stop. On the border of Laskowa and Młynne, in the area of the Załpa hamlet, the ridges built of resistant rocks almost reach the river bed, causing significant narrowing (up to 50 m) of the valley and blocking its ventilation. Closing the valley from the west affects the local microclimate of the densely populated village center of Laskowa, located in the immediate vicinity. In the heating season, as a result of this limitation of air circulation, local smog forms, making breathing difficult. This applies only to the center of the village, because a few hundred meters downstream (already in the vicinity of Nadole), the valley clearly widens and becomes better ventilated. Even with poor general air circulation, the so-called valley breeze blows along the Łososina valley. However, any limitation of air flow may cause the phenomenon of local smog.
Panorama of the Łososina valley towards the north-east
Jabłoniec ridge 510 m above sea level
Jabłoniecki Potok Valley
Kamionka Stream Valley
Jastrząbka 566.7 m above sea level
Kobyła 605 m above sea level