6. Bezkręgowce leśne
Walking along forest paths, we often do not realize that small and medium-sized organisms live under our feet and on the leaves of trees. Due to the large number of species of forest invertebrates, we can focus only on selected representatives of individual groups. The insects are the most numerous here. Among them, colorful butterflies and medium-sized beetles are the easiest to spot. Among the butterflies you can meet here: Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta), Silver-washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia), Green-veined White (Pieris napi), and Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperantus). Forest butterflies also include: Comma (Polygonia c album), Camberwell Beauty (Nymphalis antiopa), and Speckled Wood (Pararge aegeria).
Beetles are represented by the following species: Violet Ground Beetle (Carabus violaceus), Violet Oil Beetle (Meloe violaceus), Spotted Longhorn (Rutpela maculata), and a somewhat similar Longhorn Beetle (Leptura quadrifasciata).
The representative of the wasp is the Common Carder Bee (Bombus pascuorum) found in light, sparse forests, as well as in open areas. Diptera include a hoverfly Myathropa florea found in forests and other habitats. We can also meet Tetrodontophora bielanensis, which belongs to springtails, or the European Earwig (Forficula auricularia).
A large order of spiders is represented by a species of jumping spiders Dendryphantes hastatus, the Charcoal Spider (Tegenaria ferruginea) living under the bark of dead trees, and the Angular Orbweb Spider (Araneus angulatus), a common forest species that creates webs.
Moss mites are the smallest inhabitants of the forest. There can be almost a million individuals per 1 sq.m., belonging to about 100 species. An example is Phauloppia lucorum. Moss mites live in soil, rotting wood, and among mosses and lichens. They are saprophages, but they also eat fungi, bacteria, and lichens.
The woodland centipedes include Pill Millipede (Glomeris marginata), Brown Centipede (Lithobius forficatus) and small-sized Bristly Millipede (Polyxenus lagurus) are often present under stones and tree logs, as well as among mosses.
The Common Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) is a representative of the annelid type. Reaches a body length of up to 18 cm. Under favorable conditions, it is very numerous, up to 700 individuals in 1 cubic meter of soil.
The Roman Snail (Helix pomatia) belongs to the type of molluscs. It is the largest land snail in Poland. It lives in moist forests, parks, and gardens. He is androgynous. In Poland, it is under partial species protection.
1.Red Admiral, 2. Silver-washed Fritillary, 3. Green-veined White. 4. Longhorn Beetle, 5. Violet Ground Beetle, 6. Violet Oil Beetle, 7. Spotted Longhorn, 8. Common Carder Bee, 9. Hoverfly Myathropa florea, 10. Moss mite Phauloppia lucorum, 11. Charcoal Spider, 12. Common Earthworm