11. Miedze i zadrzewienia śródpolne
FIELD MARGINS AND MIDFIELD WOODLOTS
The agricultural landscape of the Carpathians looks picturesque thanks to the fragmentation of land that has persisted for decades. The soil for cultivation was prepared from the clearing of the forest. In the next stage, the soil was cleared of stones, which were stored on the outskirts of the fields. Every year, the inhabitants removed the stones lying in the fields, accumulating them along the balks in the form of embankments and piles. Unfortunately, the "birth" of stones by the earth is a permanent process. Through frost and movements of the earth's crust, and through field work, stones "travel" to the surface. Hidden under a layer of soil, they systematically move upwards and reach the surface. This is due to the moisture accumulated under the stone in winter freezes, thus increasing its volume, and the ice pushes the stone to the surface. The work associated with collecting stones was naturally included in the annual cycle of field work and life in the countryside.
Another of the key elements of the space of the Carpathian countryside are midfield plantings. They have a multifaceted impact on the structure and functioning of the landscape, creating protective belts and boundaries between arable fields, meadows, and pastures. They play an important role in the protection and shaping of the natural environment, constituting a functional system of mutual interactions and connections of all animate and inanimate elements. Their task is primarily to prevent soil erosion. They also weaken the strength of the wind. Woodlots located at the edges and escarpments of slopes prevent the formation of frost pools. They also have a positive impact on the water balance of the environment and reduce the loss of water from the soil. They contribute to the reduction of surface water runoff. In its vicinity, air humidity often increases, creating a favorable microclimate for crops. They affect the even distribution of the snow cover, protecting the crops of winter plants against frost, and limit the movement of chemical compounds contained in fertilizers and plant protection products from fields to water.
The most important function of field margins and mid-woodlots is the protection of biodiversity. They not only create a beautiful element of the landscape, but are often the only refuge for many species of plants and animals that remain in constant contact and in relationships with the surrounding fields and meadows. The role midfield plantings play in the agricultural landscape, as well as in the biological life of crops, is invaluable. Without them, the landscape is defenseless against unfavorable climatic conditions and is condemned to degradation.
1.Stones collected from the fields, 2. Rosebay Willowherb, 3. Blackthorn in bloom at field margin, 4. Sand lizard, 5. Slowworm, 6. Common Viper, 7. Yellowhammer (AC), 8. Great Tit, 9. Blue Tit. 10. Jersey Tiger Moth, 11. Eurasian bee beetle, 12. Flower crab spider, 13. Wasp spider, 14. Hoverfly Volucella bombylans, 15. Meadow Scorpionfly